For more than 700 years, goldenrod has been used in Europe to treat chronic nephritis, kidney stones, rheumatism and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Goldenrod extract has been used in several diuretic preparations for treatment of kidney stones and prostate diseases. The pharmacological effects of these preparations are mainly due to their phenolic compounds. Flavonoids (at least 2.5 percent), especially flavonols, are among the important phenolic compounds in goldenrod; they have antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects. Recently, polyphenolic compounds are being extensively studied, as they have shown potential effect in management of several diseases of the urinary system.
For centuries, compound herbal medicines containing goldenrod have been tested for treatment of diseases of the urinary system. These medicines have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, diuretic, anti-spasmodic and analgesic effects, and therefore, have been safely used for treatment of inflammations, infection, aiding expulsion of urinary stones and prevention of renal calculus formation. In Europe, goldenrod is a famous plant for treatment of lower urinary tract infections and prevention of renal calculus formation.
Black poplar contains glycosides like salicin, and due to its antipyretic and diuretic effects, it has been used in treating diseases of the urinary system. Derivatives of salicylic acid and flavonoids are responsible for black poplar’s antipyretic, analgesic, anti-spasm and antibacterial effects; its positive effects in micturition disorders accompanying Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) may be due to the presence of Zinc lignans.
Pumpkin seed inhibits 5-α-reductase in vitro, and has anti-androgenic and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. It is used in treatment of BPH symptoms. Several laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated positive effects of pumpkin seed extract in elimination of urinary problems caused by BPH and overactive bladder. Furthermore, in one study, pumpkin seed has shown to reduce formation of calcium oxalate crystals.