Clove has a long history of alimental and medicinal use. The use of clove essential oil as analgesic and local anesthetic has continued up to now in dentistry. Clove essential oil is used in the symptomatic treatment of toothache and dry socket. The main ingredient in clove essential oil is eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), which comprises 60 to 90% of this essential oil. In animals, eugenol has shown antifebrile effects resembling that of acetaminophen. In in vitro conditions, eugenol inhibits the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, formation of B2 Thromboxane and platelet aggregation due to arachidonic acid. The results of some research confirm the platelet aggregation inhibitory and anti-thrombotic effects of clove essential oil.(1)
Toothbrush Tree, recommended by Muhammad (PBUH) for cleaning and strengthening of the teeth and prevention of caries, has been in use in many countries for over 1400 years. Recently, the WHO has recommended the use of toothbrush tree as an effective tool for retention of oral hygiene. The wooden root of this plant is used as a toothbrush. Due to having analgesic effects for the teeth, the boiled root and twigs of this plant have traditionally been used; this effect has also been demonstrated in animals.(2) In comparison to a conventional washing solution for teeth roots, a 15% alcoholic extract of toothbrush tree has shown considerable antimicrobial effects, similar to that of Sodium Hypochlorite 5.25% and Chlorhexidine 0.2%, and has had considerable difference with normal saline.(3) The antimicrobial activity of toothbrush tree has been demonstrated against a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, like S. pyogenes, S. mutans, S. faecalis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, A. actinomycete comitans, C. albicans and B. gingivalis.(4) Due to their tannin content, which prevents the attachment of the bacteria to the teeth, and due to their sulfur and isothyocianide, various parts of the plant have strong, broad antimicrobial effects against various microorganisms.(5,6)
The chloride in toothbrush tree prevents the formation of dental plaque; therefore, the individuals using toothbrush tree over a long period of time have white teeth. A considerably high content of chloride in the stems of the plant, along with other ingredients, provide it with strong anti-caries effect.
Propolis is a resin compound collected by honey bee from various trees. The history of the use of propolis for cosmetic purposes and as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent goes back to 300 BC. In in vitro studies, various extracts of propolis have shown broad antimicrobial activity, which has been higher in the case of gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. Synergistic effects have also been demonstrated with several antibiotics. Due to its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, propolis is used in a variety of mouthwashes, pastes dental gels and buccal products. In vitro studies show the effect of propolis against prevalent periodontal pathogens like the species in the genus Candida and the group Streptococcus mutans, and in one study, the potential effect of caffeic acid has been raised on a cellular level to influence the function of the epithelial membrane against microbes. In comparison with milk, saline and Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution, the use of propolis as a medium to keep the tooth after the expulsion of the tooth, for instance in case of trauma, has shown that those teeth kept in propolis contained a higher number of revivable cells.(1)